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Classification Varieties of soybeans are used for many purposes. The genus name Glycine was originally introduced by Carl Linnaeus (1737) in his first edition of Genera Plantarum. The word glycine is derived from the Greek – glykys (sweet) and likely refers to the sweetness of the pear-shaped (apios in Greek) edible tubers produced by the native North American twining or climbing herbaceous legume, Glycine apios, now known as Apios americana. The cultivated soybean first appeared in Species Plantarum, by Linnaeus, under the name Phaseolus max L. The combination Glycine max (L.) Merr., as proposed by Merrill in 1917, has become the valid name for this useful plant. The genus Glycine Willd. is divided into two subgenera, Glycine and Soja. The subgenus Soja (Moench) F.J. Herm. includes the cultivated soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., and the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc. Both species are annual. Glycine soja is the wild ancestor of Glycine max and grows wild in China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Russia. The subgenus Glycine consists of at least 16 wild perennial species: for example, Glycine canescens F.J. Herm. and G. tomentella Hayata, both found in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Like some other crops of long domestication, the relationship of the modern soybean to wild-growing species can no longer be traced with any degree of certainty. It is a cultural variety with a very large number of cultivars. Description and physical characteristics Soy varies in growth, habit, and height. It may grow not higher than 20 cm (7.8 inches), or grow up to 2 meters (6.5 feet) high. The pods, stems, and leaves are covered with fine brown or gray hairs. The leaves are trifoliolate, having 3 to 4 leaflets per leaf, and the leaflets are 615 cm (26 inches) long and 27 cm (13 inches) broad. The leaves fall before the seeds are mature. The inconspicuous, self-fertile flowers are borne in the axil of the leaf and are white, pink or purple. Small, purple soybean flowers. The fruit is a hairy pod that grows in clusters of 35, each pod is 38 cm long(13 inches) and usually contains 24 (rarely more) seeds 511 mm in diameter. Soybeans occur in various sizes, and in many hull or seed coat colors, including black, brown, blue, yellow, green and mottled. The hull of the mature bean is hard, water resistant, and protects the cotyledon and hypocotyl (or “germ”) from damage. If the seed coat is cracked, the seed will not germinate. The scar, visible on the seed coat, is called the hilum (colors include black, brown, buff, gray and yellow) and at one end of the hilum is the micropyle, or small opening in the seed coat which can allow the absorption of water for sprouting. Remarkably, seeds such as soybeans containing very high levels of protein can undergo desiccation yet survive and revive after water absorption. A. Carl Leopold, son of Aldo Leopold, began studying this capability at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research at Cornell University in the mid 1980s. He found soybeans and corn to have a range of soluble carbohydrates protecting the seed’s cell viability. Patents were awarded to him in the early 1990s on techniques for protecting “biological membranes” and proteins in the dry state. Compare to tardigrades. Chemical composition of the seed Soybean, mature seeds, raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 1,866 kJ (446 kcal) Carbohydrates 30.16 g Sugars 7.33 g Dietary fiber 9.3 g Fat 19.94 g saturated 2.884 g monounsaturated 4.404 g polyunsaturated 11.255 g Protein 36.49 g Tryptophan 0.591 g Threonine 1.766 g Isoleucine 1.971 g Leucine 3.309 g Lysine 2.706 g Methionine 0.547 g Cystine 0.655 g Phenylalanine 2.122 g Tyrosine 1.539 g Valine 2.029 g Arginine 3.153 g Histidine 1.097 g Alanine 1.915 g Aspartic acid 5.112 g Glutamic acid 7.874 g Glycine 1.880 g Proline 2.379 g Serine 2.357 g Water 8.54 g Vitamin A equiv. 1 g (0%) Vitamin B6 0.377 mg (29%) Vitamin B12 0 g (0%) Vitamin C 6.0 mg (10%) Vitamin K 47 g (45%) Calcium 277 mg (28%) Iron 15.70 mg (126%) Magnesium 280 mg (76%) Phosphorus 704 mg (101%) Potassium 1797 mg (38%) Sodium 2 mg (0%) Zinc 4.89 mg (49%) Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database Together, oil and protein content account for about 60% of dry soybeans by weight; protein at 40% and oil at 20%. The remainder consists of 35% carbohydrate and about 5% ash. Soybean cultivars comprise approximately 8% seed coat or hull, 90% cotyledons and 2% hypocotyl axis or germ. Most soy protein is a relatively heat-stable storage protein. This heat stability enables soy food products requiring high temperature cooking, such as tofu, soy milk and textured vegetable protein (soy flour) to be made. The principal soluble carbohydrates of mature soybeans are the disaccharide sucrose (range 2.58.2%), the trisaccharide raffinose (0.11.0%) composed of one sucrose molecule connected to one molecule of galactose, and the tetrasaccharide stachyose (1.4 to 4.1%) composed of one sucrose connected to two molecules of galactose. While the oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose protect the viability of the soy bean seed from desiccation (see above section on physical characteristics) they are not digestible sugars and therefore contribute to flatulence and abdominal discomfort in humans and other monogastric animals; compare to the disaccharide trehalose. Undigested oligosaccharides are broken down in the intestine by native microbes producing gases such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane. Since soluble soy carbohydrates are found in the whey and are broken down during fermentation, soy concentrate, soy protein isolates, tofu, soy sauce, and sprouted soy beans are without flatus activity. On the other hand, there may be some beneficial effects to ingesting oligosaccharides such as raffinose and stachyose, namely, encouraging indigenous bifidobacteria in the colon against putrefactive bacteria. The insoluble carbohydrates in soybeans consist of the complex polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. The majority of soybean carbohydrates can be classed as belonging to dietary fiber. Nutrition Further information: Soy protein For human consumption, soybeans must be cooked with “wet” heat in order to destroy the trypsin inhibitors (serine protease inhibitors). It is not advisable to eat raw soybeans. Soybeans are considered by many agencies to be a source of complete protein. A complete protein is one that contains significant amounts of all the essential amino acids that must be provided to the human body because of the body’s inability to synthesize them. For this reason, soy is a good source of protein, amongst many others, for vegetarians and vegans or for people who want to reduce the amount of meat they eat. According to the US Food and Drug Administration: Soy protein products can be good substitutes for animal products because, unlike some other beans, soy offers a ‘complete’ protein profile. … Soy protein products can replace animal-based foodshich also have complete proteins but tend to contain more fat, especially saturated fatithout requiring major adjustments elsewhere in the diet. However, as with many dietary health claims, there are opposing viewpoints on the health benefits of soybeans. The gold standard for measuring protein quality, since 1990, is the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) and by this criterion soy protein is the nutritional equivalent of meat, eggs, and casein for human growth and health. Soybean protein isolate has a biological value of 74, whole soybeans 96, soybean milk 91, and eggs 97. Soy protein is essentially identical to that of other legume seeds. Moreover, it has the highest yield per square meter of growing area, and is the least expensive source of dietary protein.[citation needed] Consumption of soy may also reduce the risk of colon cancer, possibly due to the presence of sphingolipids. Cultivation Soybean output in 2005 Top Soybean Producers in 2006 (million metric tons)  United States 87.7  Brazil 52.4  Argentina 40.4  China 15.5  India 8.3  Paraguay 3.8  Canada 3.5  Bolivia 1.4 World Total 221.5 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Soybeans are an important global crop, providing oil and protein. In the United States, the bulk of the crop has its oil solvent-extracted with hexane, then the “toasted” defatted soymeal (50% protein) makes possible the raising of farm animals (eg. chicken, hog, turkey) on an industrial scale never before seen in human history. A very small proportion of the crop is consumed directly by humans. Soybean products do appear in a large variety of processed foods. During World War II, soybeans became important in both North America and Europe chiefly as substitutes for other protein foods and as a source of edible oil. It was during World War II that the soybean was discovered as fertilizer by the United States Department of Agriculture. In the 1960-1 Dillion round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the United States secured tariff-free access for its soybeans to the European market. In the 1960s the United States exported over 90% of the world’s soybeans. In 2005, top soybeans exporters are Brazil (39% of world soybean exports), United States (37%) and Argentina ( 16%), while top importers are China (41% of world soybean imports), European Union (22%), Japan (6%) and Mexico (6%). Cultivation is successful in climates with hot summers, with optimum growing conditions in mean temperatures of 20 C to 30 C (68F to 86F); temperatures of below 20 C and over 40 C (68 F, 104 F) retard growth significantly. They can grow in a wide range of soils, with optimum growth in moist alluvial soils with a good organic content. Soybeans, like most legumes, perform nitrogen fixation by establishing a symbiotic relationship with the bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum (syn. Rhizobium japonicum; Jordan 1982). However, for best results an inoculum of the correct strain of bacteria should be mixed with the soybean (or any legume) seed before planting. Modern crop cultivars generally reach a height of around 1 m (3 ft), and take 80120 days from sowing to harvesting. Soybeans are native to east Asia but only 45 percent of soybean production is located there. The other 55 percent of production is in the Americas. The U.S. produced 75 million tons of soybeans in 2000, of which more than one-third was exported. Other leading producers are Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, China, and India. Environmental groups, such as Greenpeace and the WWF, have reported that soybean cultivation and the probability of increased soybean cultivation in Brazil has destroyed huge areas of Amazon rainforest and is encouraging further deforestation. American soil scientist Dr. Andrew McClung, who first showed that the ecologically biodiverse savannah of the Cerrado region of Brazil could grow profitable soybeans, was awarded the 2006 World Food Prize on October 19, 2006. Soybean plants are vulnerable to a wide range of bacterial diseases, fungal diseases, viral diseases and parasites. Further information: List of soybean diseases v  d  e Lists of countries by agricultural output rankings Cereals Barley  Buckwheat  Maize  Millet  Oats  Rice  Rye  Sorghum  Triticale  Wheat Fruit Apples  Bananas  Citrus (Oranges)  Tomatos Other Cacao  Coffee  Fish  Garlic  Milk  Potato  Soybean  Sugar beet  Sugar cane  Sunflower  Tea  Tobacco  Wine Related Irrigation  Land use Lists of countries  Lists by country  List of international rankings  List of statistically superlative countries History Soybeans were a crucial crop in eastern Asia long before written records.[citation needed] They remain a major crop in China, Japan, and Korea. Prior to fermented products such as Soy sauce, tempeh, natto, and miso, soy was considered sacred for its use in crop rotation as a method of fixing nitrogen. The plants would be plowed under to clear the field for food crops.[citation needed] Soy was first introduced to Europe in the early 1700s and what is now the United States in 1765, where it was first grown for hay. Benjamin Franklin wrote a letter in 1770 mentioning sending soybeans home from England. Soybeans did not become an important crop outside of Asia until about 1910. In America, soy was considered an industrial product only and not used as a food prior to the 1920s. Soy was introduced to Africa from China in the late 19th Century and is now widespread across the continent. Asia The wild ancestor of the soybean is Glycine soja (previously called G. ussuriensis), a legume native to central China. The soybean has been used in China for 5,000 years as a food and a component of drugs. According to the ancient Chinese, in 2853 BC the legendary Emperor Shennong of China proclaimed that five plants were sacred: soybeans, rice, wheat, barley, and millet. However, Soy in particular was revered for its root structure as a means of crop rotation and not as a food source. Cultivation of soybeans was long confined chiefly to China, but gradually spread to other countries. The earliest preserved soybeans were found in archaeological sites in Korea. Radiocarbon dating of soybean samples recovered through flotation during excavations at the Early Mumun period Okbang site in Korea indicates that soybean was cultivated as a food crop in ca. 1000900 BC. From about the first century AD to the Age of Discovery (15-16th century), soybeans were introduced into several countries such as India, Japan, Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Burma, Taiwan and Nepal. This spread was due to the establishment of sea and land trade routes. The best current evidence on the Japanese Archipelago suggests that soybean cultivation occurred in the early Yayoi period. The earliest Japanese textual reference to the soybean is in the classic Kojiki (Records of Ancient Matters) which was completed in 712 AD. Many people have claimed that soybeans in Asia were historically only used after a fermentation process, which lowers the high phytoestrogens content found in the raw plant. However, terms similar to “soy milk” have been in use since 82 AD, and there is evidence of tofu consumption that dates to 220. United States Soy took on a very important role in the United States after World War I. During the Great Depression, the drought stricken (Dust Bowl) regions of the United States were able to use soy to regenerate their soil because of its nitrogen-fixing properties. Farms were increasing production in order to meet with government demands, and Henry Ford was a great leader of the soybean industry. In 1932-33 the Ford Motor Company spent approximately $1,250,000 on soybean research. By 1935 every Ford car had soy involved in its manufacture. For example, soybean oil was used to paint the automobiles as well as fluid for shock absorbers. Ford’s involvement with the soybean opened many doors for agriculture and industry to be linked more strongly than it ever had before. Henry Ford promoted the soybean, helping to develop uses for it both in food and in industrial products, even demonstrating auto body panels made of soy-based plastics. Ford’s interest led to two bushels of soybeans being used in each Ford car as well as products like the first commercial soy milk, ice cream and all-vegetable non-dairy whipped topping. The Ford development of so-called soy-based plastics was based on the addition of soybean flour and wood flour to phenol formaldehyde plastics. In 1931, Ford hired chemists Robert Boyer and Frank Calvert to produce artificial silk. They succeeded in making a textile fiber of spun soy protein fibers, hardened or tanned in a formaldehyde bath, which was given the name Azlon by the Federal Trade Commission. It was usable in the making of suits, felt hats, and overcoats. Though pilot production of Azlon reached 5000 pounds per day in 1940, it never reached the commercial market; Dupont’s nylon was the winner in the quest to produce artificial silk. Ford himself wore a suit made entirely from soybeans, and he was even said to have had dinner parties with nothing but soybean-based foods on the menu.[citation needed] Genetic modification Different varieties of soybeans being grown together Soybeans are one of the “biotech food” crops that have been genetically modified, and genetically modified soybeans are being used in an increasing number of products. In 1995 Monsanto Company introduced Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans that have been genetically modified to be resistant to the herbicide Roundup through substitution of the Agrobacterium sp. (strain CP4) gene EPSP (5-enolpyruvyl shikimic acid-3-phosphate) synthase. The substituted version is not sensitive to glyphosate. In 1997, about 8% of all soybeans cultivated for the commercial market in the United States were genetically modified. In 2006, the figure was 89%. As with other “Roundup Ready” crops, concern is expressed over damage to biodiversity. However, the RR gene has been bred into so many different soybean cultivars that the genetic modification itself has not resulted in any decline of genetic diversity, as demonstrated by a 2003 study on genetic diversity. The widespread use of such types of GM soybeans in the Americas has caused problems with exports to some regions. GM crops require extensive certification before they can be legally imported into the European Union, where there is considerable supplier and consumer reluctance to use GM products for consumer or animal use. Difficulties with coexistence and subsequent traces of cross-contamination of non-GM stocks have caused shipments to be rejected and have put a premium on non-GM soy. Uses Soybeans can be broadly classified as “vegetable” (garden) or field (oil) types. Vegetable types cook more easily, have a mild nutty flavor, better texture, are larger in size, higher in protein, and lower in oil than field types. Tofu and soy milk producers prefer the higher protein cultivars bred from vegetable soybeans originally brought to the United States in the late 1930s. The “garden” cultivars are generally not suitable for mechanical combine harvesting because there is a tendency for the pods to shatter upon reaching maturity. Among the legumes, the soybean, also classed as an oilseed, is pre-eminent for its high (3845%) protein content as well as its high (20%) oil content. Soybeans are the second most valuable agricultural export in the United States behind corn. The bulk of the soybean crop is grown for oil production, with the high-protein defatted and “toasted” soy meal used as livestock feed. A smaller percentage of soybeans are used directly for human consumption. Immature soybeans may be boiled whole in their green pod and served with salt, under the Japanese name edamame (, edamame?). Because of the proclaimed health benefits of soy, edamame has been featured as an ideal snack alternative in fitness and healthy living magazines. Edamame is sold in the frozen vegetable section at some larger grocery stores, and as ready-to-eat snackfood in many Asian delis. In China, Japan, and Korea the bean and products made from the bean are a popular part of the diet. The Chinese invented tofu ( dufu), and also made use of several varieties of soybean paste as seasonings. Japanese foods made from soya include miso (), natt (), kinako () and edamame (). In Korean cuisine, soybean sprouts, called kongnamul (), are also used in a variety of dishes, and are also the base ingredient in doenjang, cheonggukjang and ganjang. In Vietnam, soya bean are used to make soybean paste- tng in the North with the most popular products are tng Bn, tng Nam n, tng C as a garnish of ph dish and g cu dish), tofu ( h or ph or tu h), soya sauce (n tng, literally: soya water), soya milk (n in the North or s nnh in the South), h n g (tofu sweet soup). In India, black soybean is popular in the Himalayan regions of the country (esp. Uttarakhand), where it is consumed in various ways similar to pulses. The beans can be processed in a variety of ways. Common forms of soy (or soya) include soy meal, soy flour, soy milk, tofu, textured vegetable protein (TVP, which is made into a wide variety of vegetarian foods, some of them intended to imitate meat), tempeh, soy lecithin and soybean oil. Soybeans are also the primary ingredient involved in the production of soy sauce (or shoyu). Soybeans grow throughout Asia and North and South America. Soybean fields in the United States Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) is among the largest processors of soybeans and soy products. ADM along with Dow Chemical Company, DuPont and Monsanto Company support the industry trade associations United Soybean Board and Soyfoods Association of North America. These trade associations have increased the consumption of soy products dramatically in recent years. Oil Main article: Soybean oil Soyabean seed contains about 19 % Oil. To Extract soybean oil from seed , the soybeans are cracked, adjusted for moisture content, rolled into flakes and solvent-extracted with commercial hexane. The oil is then refined, blended for different applications, and sometimes hydrogenated. Soybean oils, both liquid and partially hydrogenated, are exported abroad, sold as “vegetable oil,” or end up in a wide variety of processed foods. The remaining soybean husks are used mainly as animal feed. Meal Main article: Soybean meal Soybean meal is the material remaining after solvent extraction of oil from soybean flakes, with a 50% soy protein content. The meal is ‘toasted’ (a misnomer because the heat treatment is with moist steam) and ground in a hammer mill. Soybean meal is an essential element of the American production method of growing farm animals such as poultry and swine on an industrial scale that began in the 1930s; and more recently the aquaculture of catfish. Ninety-eight percent of the U.S. soybean crop is used for livestock feed. Soybean meal is also used in lower end dog foods. Flour Soy flour refers to defatted soybeans ground finely enough to pass through a 100-mesh or smaller screen where special care was taken during desolventizing (not toasted) in order to minimize denaturation of the protein to retain a high Protein Dispersibility Index (PDI), for uses such as extruder cooking of textured vegetable protein. It is the starting material for production of soy concentrate and soy protein isolate. Defatted soy flour is obtained from solvent extracted flakes, and contains less than 1% oil. Full-fat soy flour is made from unextracted, dehulled beans, and contains about 18% to 20% oil. Due to its high oil content a specialized Alpine Fine Impact Mill must be used for grinding rather than the more common hammer mill. Low-fat soy flour is made by adding back some oil to defatted soy flour. The lipid content varies according to specifications, usually between 4.5% and 9%. High-fat soy flour can also be produced by adding back soybean oil to defatted flour at the level of 15%. Lecithinated soy flour is made by adding soybean lecithin to defatted, low-fat or high-fat soy flours to increase their dispersibility and impart emulsifying properties. The lecithin content varies up to 15%. Reference: Soybeans: Chemistry and Technology. page 442. A.K. Smith and S.J. Circle. The AVI Publishing Company,1972. Infant formula Soy-based infant formula (SBIF) is used for infants who are allergic to cow milk proteins. It is sold in powdered, ready-to-feed, and concentrated liquid forms. Some reviews have expressed the opinion that more research is needed to determine what effect the phytoestrogens in soybeans may have on infants. Diverse studies have concluded there are no adverse effects in human growth, development, or reproduction as a result of the consumption of soy-based infant formula. One of these studies, published in the Journal of Nutrition, concludes that there are: …no clinical concerns with respect to nutritional adequacy, sexual development, neurobehavioral development, immune development, or thyroid disease. SBIFs provide complete nutrition that adequately supports normal infant growth and development. FDA has accepted SBIFs as safe for use as the sole source of nutrition. Meat and dairy substitutes Open package of a soy-based cream cheese alternative with chives Soybeans can be processed to produce a texture and appearance similar to many other foods. For example, soybeans are the primary ingredient in many dairy product substitutes (e.g., soy milk, margarine, soy ice cream, soy yogurt, soy cheese, and soy cream cheese) and meat substitutes (e.g. veggie burgers). These substitutes are readily available in most supermarkets. Although soy milk does not naturally contain significant amounts of digestable calcium (the high calcium content of soybeans is bound to the insoluble constituents and remains in the soy pulp), many manufacturers of soy milk sell calcium-enriched products as well. Soy is also used in Tempeh: the beans (sometimes mixed with grain) are fermented into a solid cake. Soy products also are used as a low cost filler in meat and poultry products. Food service, retail and institutional (primarily school lunch and correctional) facilities regularly use such “extended” products. Extension may result in diminished flavor, but fat and cholesterol are reduced. Vitamin and mineral fortification can be used to make soy products nutritionally equivalent to animal protein; the protein quality is already roughly equivalent. Other products Soybeans are the bean used in Chinese fermented black beans, douchi, not the sometimes confused black turtle beans. Soybeans are also used in industrial products including oils, soap, cosmetics, resins, plastics, inks, crayons, solvents, and clothing. Soybean oil is the primary source of biodiesel in the United States, accounting for 80% of domestic biodiesel production. Soybeans have also been used since 2001 as fermenting stock in the manufacture of a brand of vodka. Cattle feed Cattle are often fed soy. Spring grasses are rich in Omega-3 fatty acids whereas soy is predominantly Omega-6. “Cows fed plants like alfalfa and flaxseed, substances that, unlike corn or soy, mimic the spring grasses that the animal evolved long ago to eat.” Health benefits Omega-3 fatty acids Roasted soybeans Omega-3 fatty acids, for example, alpha-linolenic acid C18-3, all cis, 9,12,15 octadecatrienoic acid (where the omega-3 refers to carbon number 3 counting from the hydrocarbon tail whereas C-15 refers to carbon number 15 counting from the carboxyl acid head) are special fat components that benefit many body functions. However, the effects which are beneficial to health are associated mainly with the longer-chain, more unsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) found in fish oil and oily fish. For instance, EPA and DHA, inhibit blood clotting, while there is no evidence that alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n3, aLNA) can do this. Soybean oil is one of the few common vegetable oils that contains a significant amount of aLNA; (others include canola, walnut, hemp, and flax). However, soybean oil does not contain EPA or DHA. Soybean oil does contain significantly greater amount of omega-6 fatty acids in the oil: 100g of soybean oil contains 7g of omega-3 fatty acids to 51g of omega-6: a ratio of 1:7. Flaxseed, in comparison, has an omega-3:omega-6 ratio of 3:1. Isoflavones Main article: Isoflavone Soybeans also contain the isoflavones genistein and daidzein, types of phytoestrogen, that are considered by some nutritionists and physicians to be useful in the prevention of cancer and by others to be carcinogenic and endocrine disruptive. Soy’s content of isoflavones are as much as 3 mg/g dry weight.[citation needed] Isoflavones are polyphenol compounds, produced primarily by beans and other legumes, including peanuts and chickpeas. Isoflavones are closely related to the antioxidant flavonoids found in other plants, vegetables and flowers. Isoflavones such as genistein and daidzein are found in only some plant families, because most plants do not have an enzyme, chalcone isomerase which converts a flavone precursor into an isoflavone. In contradiction to well known benefits of isoflavones, genistein acts as an oxidant (stimulating nitrate synthesis), and blocks formation of new blood vessels (antiangiogenic effect). Some studies show that genistein acts as inhibitor of substances that regulate cell division and cell survival (growth factors). A review of the available studies by the United States Health and Human Services Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) found little evidence of substantial health improvements and no adverse effects, but also noted that there was no long-term safety data on estrogenic effects from soy consumption. Cholesterol reduction The dramatic increase in soyfood sales is largely credited to the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) approval of soy as an official cholesterol-lowering food, along with other heart and health benefits. A 2001 literature review argued that these health benefits were poorly supported by the available evidence, and noted that disturbing data on soy’s effect on the cognitive function of the elderly existed. In 2008, an epidemiological study of 719 Indonesian elderly found that tofu intake was associated with worse memory, but tempeh (a fermented soy product) intake was associated with better memory. This study replicated other studies. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2009) From 1992 to 2003, sales have experienced a 15% compound annual growth rate, increasing from $300 million to $3.9 billion over 11 years, as new soyfood categories have been introduced, soyfoods have been repositioned in the market place, thanks to a better emphasis on marketing nutrition. In 1995, the New England Journal of Medicine (Vol. 333, No. 5) published a meta-analysis financed by DuPont Protein Technologies International (PTI), which produces and markets soy through The Solae Company. The meta-analysis concluded that soy protein is correlated with significant decreases in serum cholesterol, LDL (bad cholesterol) and triglycerides. However, HDL(good cholesterol) did not increase by a significant amount. Soy phytoestrogens (isoflavones: genistein and daidzein) adsorbed onto the soy protein were suggested as the agent reducing serum cholesterol levels. On the basis of this research PTI filed a petition with FDA in 1998 for a health claim that soy protein may reduce cholesterol and the risk of heart disease. The FDA granted the following health claim for soy: “25 grams of soy protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease.” One serving, (1 cup or 240 mL) of soy milk, for instance, contains 6 or 7 grams of soy protein. Solae resubmitted their original petition, asking for a more vague health claim, after their original was challenged and highly criticized. Solae also submitted a petition for a health claim that soy can help prevent cancer. They quickly withdrew the petition for lack of evidence and after more than 1,000 letters of protest were received. In February 18, 2008 Weston A. Price Foundation submitted a petition for removal of this health claim. An American Heart Association review of a decade long study of soy protein benefits casts doubt on the FDA allowed “Heart Healthy” claim for soy protein and does not recommend isoflavone supplementation. The review panel also found that soy isoflavones have not been shown to reduce post menopause “hot flashes” in women and the efficacy and safety of isoflavones to help prevent cancers of the breast, uterus or prostate is in question. Phytic acid Main article: Phytic acid Soybeans contain a high level of phytic acid, which has many effects including acting as an antioxidant and a chelating agent. The beneficial claims for phytic acid include reducing cancer, minimizing diabetes, and reducing inflammation. However, phytic acid is also criticized for reducing vital minerals due to its chelating effect, especially for diets already low in minerals. Health risks Phytoestrogen Main article: Phytoestrogens Soybeans contain isoflavones called genistein and daidzein, which are one source of phytoestrogens in the human diet. Because most naturally occurring estrogenic substances show weak activity, normal consumption of foods that contain these phytoestrogens should not provide sufficient amounts to elicit a physiological response in humans.[citation needed] Plant lignans associated with high fiber foods such as cereal brans and beans are the principal precursor to mammalian lignans which have an ability to bind to human estrogen sites. Soybeans are a significant source of mammalian lignan precursor secoisolariciresinol containing 13273 g/100 g dry weight. Another phytoestrogen in the human diet with estrogen activity is coumestans, which are found in beans, split-peas, with the best sources being alfalfa, clover, and soybean sprouts. Coumestrol, an isoflavone coumarin derivative is the only coumestan in foods. Soybeans and processed soy foods are among the richest foods in total phytoestrogens (wet basis per 100g), which are present primarily in the form of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein. Women A 2001 literature review suggested that women with current or past breast cancer should be aware of the risks of potential tumor growth when taking soy products, based on the effect of phytoestrogens to promote breast cancer cell growth in animals. A 2006 commentary reviewed the relationship with soy and breast cancer. They stated that soy may prevent breast cancer, but cautioned that the impact of isoflavones on breast tissue needs to be evaluated at the cellular level in women at high risk for breast cancer. A high consumption of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are found in most types of vegetable oil including soybean oil, may increase the likelihood that postmenopausal women will develop breast cancer. Another analysis suggests an inverse association between total polyunsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer risk. Men Because of the phytoestrogen content, some studies have suggested that there is an inverse correlation between soybean ingestion and testosterone in men. For this reason, they may protect against the development of prostate cancer. A theoretical decrease in the risk of prostate cancer should, however, be weighed against the possible side-effects of decreased testosterone, which are still unclear. The popular fear that soybeans might cause reduced libido and even feminine characteristics in men has not been indicated by any study; the popularity of the notion seems to be based on the simplistic misapprehension that estrogen and testosterone have a simple, inverse relationship in sexual hormone systems and sex-related behavior. Their interplay is very complicated and still largely unknown. A study published in April 2008 concluded that soy food intake has an inverse association with sperm concentration in fertility-deficient men. The same study found that soy intake does not affect sperm motility, morphology, or ejaculate volume. Allergy Main article: Soy allergy Allergy to soy is often said to be rather common, and the food is listed with other foods that commonly cause allergy, such as milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish. The problem has been reported amongst younger children and the diagnosis of soy allergy is often based on symptoms reported by parents and/or results of skin tests or blood tests for allergy. Only a few reported studies have attempted to confirm allergy to soy by direct challenge with the food under controlled conditions. In these circumstances it is clear that skin/blood tests considerably overestimate the problem, as do parental reports. It is very difficult to give a reliable estimate of the true prevalence of soy allergy in the general population. To the extent that it does exist, soy allergy may cause cases of urticaria (hives) and angioedema (swelling), usually within minutes to two hours of ingestion of the food. In rare, severe cases true anaphylaxis may occur, a condition that is much more common with allergy to foods such as peanut and shellfish. The reason for the discrepancy is likely that soy proteins, the causative factor in allergy, are far less potent at triggering allergy symptoms than the proteins of peanut and shellfish. An allergy test that is positive demonstrates that the immune system has formed IgE antibodies to soy proteins. However, when soy is ingested proteins must evade digestion and be absorbed in a form capable of triggering allergy and also in sufficient quantities to reach a threshold to provoke actual symptoms. The low potency of soy proteins as allergens may help explain why allergy skin/blood tests suggest that soy allergy is common, yet few cases are confirmed when the food is eaten under observation. Soy can also trigger symptoms via food intolerance, a situation where no immunologic (allergic) mechanism can be proven. One scenario is seen in very young infants who have vomiting and diarrhoea when fed soy-based formula. The symptoms resolve when the formula is withdrawn and recur when it is re-administered. Older infants can suffer a more severe disorder with vomiting, diarrhoea that may be bloody, anemia, weight loss and failure to thrive. The most common cause of this unusual disorder is a sensitivity to cow’s milk, but there is no doubt that soy formulas can also be the trigger. The precise mechanism is unclear and it could be immunologic, although not through the IgE-type antibodies that have the leading role in urticaria and anaphylaxis. Fortunately it is also self-limiting and will often disappear in the toddler years. Brain Estrogen helps protect and repair the brain during and after injury. The mimicry of estrogen by the phytoestrogens in soy has introduced a controversy over whether such a replacement is harmful or helpful to the brain. Several studies have found soy to be harmful for rats. Nevertheless the cited study was based on rats fed with concentrated phytoestrogens and not common soybeans. The common amounts of phytoestrogens in soy beans are not to be compared to concentrated estrogen. One study followed over 3000 Japanese men between 1965 and 1999, and that showed a positive correlation between brain atrophy and consumption of tofu. A study on elderly Indonesian men and women found that tempeh consumption was independently related to better memory. Carcinogen Raw soy flour is known to cause pancreatic cancer in rats. However, studies suggest heated soy flour is not carcinogenic in fat rats. Whether soy might promote pancreatic cancer in humans is unknown because studies have not yet attempted to single out soy intake and the incidence of pancreatic cancer in humans. The doses of soy used to induce pancreatic cancer in rats are said to be larger than humans would normally consume. In the meantime, several epidemiologic studies have found a protective effect against pancreatic cancer in high consumers of soy and other foods typical of the traditional Japanese and modern Seventh Day Adventist diet. Existing cancer patients have been advised by the Cancer Council of New South Wales, Australia to avoid high consumption of soy foods and supplements because of conflicting evidence these may accelerate the growth of hormone-dependent tumours. “While they [soy foods] may have a protective effect, there is also some evidence that phyto-oestrogens may stimulate the growth of existing hormone-dependent cancers,” according to a 2007 statement by the council. Soybean futures Soybean futures are traded on the Chicago Board of Trade and have delivery dates in January (F), March (H), May (K), July (N), August (Q), September (U), November (X). It is also traded on other commodity futures exchanges under different contract specifications: SAFEX: The South African Futures Exchange DC: Dalian Commodity Exchange KEX: Kansai Commodities Exchange in Japan TGE: Tokyo Grain Exchange in Japan KCX: Fukuoka Commodity Exchange in Japan that was absorbed by the KEX Soy beans also come from Mack and Bewick in the city of Detroit. See also Cash crop Nutrition Soy allergy Soy molasses Soybean wars of Paraguay References ^ “Glycine max”. MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE. http://www.plantnames.unimelb.edu.au/Sorting/Glycine.html#max.  ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/31/us/31meat.html?emc=eta1 ^ http://www.dvo.com/recipe_pages/grilln/Indonesian_Ketchup_-_Ketjap_Manis.html ^ “World Soybean Production 2007”. The American Soybean Association. 2008. http://www.soystats.com/2008/page_30.htm.  ^ “Soybeans Countries by commodity 2007”. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS. http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx.  ^ Singh, Ram J.; Nelson, Randall L.; Chung, Gyuhwa (2006-10-02). Genetic resources, chromosome engineering, and crop improvement: Oilseed Crops, Volume 4. CRC. pp. 15. ISBN 978-0849336393. http://books.google.com/books?id=lQ9bcjETlrIC&lpg=PA15&ots=TzTmDMuRfi&pg=PA15.  ^ Hymowitz, Theodore (1995-08-09). “Evaluation of Wild Perennial Glycine Species and Crosses For Resistance to Phakopsora”. in Sinclair, J.B.; Hartman, G.L.. Proceedings of the Soybean Rust Workshop. Urbana, IL, USA: National Soybean Rsearch Laboratory. pp. 3337. http://www.nsrl.uiuc.edu/news/nsrl_pubs/sbr1995/ArticleID.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-11.  ^ Newell, C. A.; Hymowitz, T. (March 1983). “Hybridization in the Genus Glycine Subgenus Glycine Willd. (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae)”. American Journal of Botany 70: 334348. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2443241.  ^ Blackman SA, Obendorf RL, Leopold AC (September 1992). “Maturation Proteins and Sugars in Desiccation Tolerance of Developing Soybean Seeds”. Plant Physiol. 100 (1): 225230. doi:10.1104/pp.100.1.225. PMID 16652951. PMC 1075542. http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16652951.  ^ a b Henkel, John (May, 2000), “Soy: Health Claims for Soy Protein, Questions About Other Components”, FDA Consumer, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1370/is_3_34/ai_62298457/?tag=content;col1  ^ Hunter, Beatrice Trum. “The Downside of Soybean Consumption”. Nutrition for Optimal Health Association. http://www.nutrition4health.org/NOHAnews/NNF01SoyBeatrice.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-11.  ^ “Protein Means Power and a Whole Lot More”. Family Education Network. http://life.familyeducation.com/nutrition-and-diet/weight/46761.html. 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PMID 15113963. http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/134/5/1157.  ^ Raj Patel, Stuffed & Starved From Farm to Fork, the Hidden Battle for the World Food System, Portobello Books LTD (2008), London pp. 169-173. ^ Reynold Millard Wik, Henry Ford’s Science and Technology for Rural America, Technology and Culture, Vol. 3, No. 3 (Summer, 1962), pp. 247-258, The Johns Hopkins University Press on behalf of the Society for the History of Technology. ^ Baohui Song et al. (2007). “Market Power and Competitive Analysis of China Soybean Import Market”. International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (IATRC). http://www-agecon.ag.ohio-state.edu/programs/Anderson/trade/51Song.pdf.  ^ Fargione, Joseph; Hill, Jason; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Hawthorne, Peter (February 2008). “Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt”. Science 319 (5867): 12351238. doi:10.1126/science.1152747.  ^ Lang, Susan (2006-06-21). “Cornell alumnus Andrew Colin McClung reaps 2006 World Food Prize”. 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ISBN 1550226215. http://books.google.com/books?id=rmIbClRzfeoC&pg=PA193&dq=soy+paint&lr=&as_drrb_is=b&as_minm_is=1&as_miny_is=1990&as_maxm_is=1&as_maxy_is=2010&as_brr=3&client=firefox-a#v=onepage&q=soy%20paint&f=false.  ^ “Henry Ford’s Eco-Friendly Automobile”. Hospitality Wholesale Products Australia. http://www.harbay.net/henryford.html. Retrieved 2009-07-12.  ^ Padgette SR, Kolacz KH, Delannay X, Re DB, LaVallee BJ, Tinius CN, Rhodes WK, Otero YI, Barry GF, Eichholz DA, Peschke VM, Nida DL, Taylor NB, Kishore GM (1995). “Development, identification, and characterization of a glyphosate-tolerant soybean line”. Crop Sci 35: 145161.  ^ Liu, KeShun (1997-05-01) (Hardcover). Soybeans: Chemistry, Technology, and Utilization. Springer. p. 532. ISBN 0-8342-1299-4.  ^ Sneller CH (2003). “Impact of transgenic genotypes and subdivision on diversity within elite North American soybean germplasm”. Crop Sci 43: 40914.  ^ EU caught in quandary over GMO animal feed imports The Guardian, 7 December 2007 ^ Miniello VL, Moro GE, Tarantino M, Natile M, Granieri L, Armenio L (September 2003). “Soy-based formulas and phyto-oestrogens: a safety profile”. Acta Paediatr Suppl 91 (441): 93100. PMID 14599051.  ^ Giampietro PG, Bruno G, Furcolo G, et al. (February 2004). “Soy protein formulas in children: no hormonal effects in long-term feeding”. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 17 (2): 1916. PMID 15055353.  ^ Strom BL, Schinnar R, Ziegler EE, et al. (August 2001). “Exposure to soy-based formula in infancy and endocrinological and reproductive outcomes in young adulthood”. JAMA 286 (7): 80714. doi:10.1001/jama.286.7.807. PMID 11497534. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11497534.  ^ a b Merritt RJ, Jenks BH (1 May 2004). “Safety of soy-based infant formulas containing isoflavones: the clinical evidence”. J Nutr. 134 (5): 1220S4S. PMID 15113975. http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15113975.  ^ “Sustainability Fact Sheet” National Biodiesel Board, April 2008. http://biodiesel.org/resources/sustainability/pdfs/SustainabilityFactSheet.pdf ^ 3 Vodka. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/05/us/05cows.html?hpw ^ a b Sacks FM, Lichtenstein A, Van Horn L, Harris W, Kris-Etherton P, Winston M (February 2006). “Soy protein, isoflavones, and cardiovascular health: an American Heart Association Science Advisory for professionals from the Nutrition Committee”. Circulation 113 (7): 103444. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.171052. PMID 16418439. http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/113/7/1034#SEC5.  ^ About.com Thyroid/Soy Info ^ Sheehan & Doerge Letter To FDA ^ Gottstein N, Ewins BA, Eccleston C, et al. (May 2003). “Effect of genistein and daidzein on platelet aggregation and monocyte and endothelial function”. Br J Nutr. 89 (5): 60716. doi:10.1079/BJN2003820. PMID 12720581.  ^ Sasamura H, Takahashi A, Yuan J, et al. (August 2004). “Antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activities of genistein in human renal cell carcinoma”. Urology 64 (2): 38993. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2004.03.045. PMID 15302513.  ^ “Study Casts Doubt On Soy’s Health Benefits”. Consumer Affairs. 2005-08-03. http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/2005/soy_study.html.  ^ Cornell University Food and Brand Lab Article. ^ Sirtori CR (2001). “Risks and benefits of soy phytoestrogens in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, climacteric symptoms and osteoporosis”. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience 24 (9): 66582. PMID 11522120.  ^ a b Hogervorst E, Sadjimim T, Yesufu A, Kreager P, Rahardjo TB (2008). “High tofu intake is associated with worse memory in elderly Indonesian men and women”. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 26 (1): 507. doi:10.1159/000141484. PMID 18583909. http://content.karger.com/produktedb/produkte.asp?typ=fulltext&file=000141484.  ^ Henkel, John. “Soy:Health Claims for Soy Protein, Question About Other Components”. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2000/300_soy.html. Retrieved February 16, 2008.  ^ “Docket No. 2007N0-464” (PDF). http://westonaprice.org/soy/FDASoyHeartLetterFinal.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-08.  ^ Vucenik, Ivana; Shamsuddin, AbulKalam M. (November 2003). “Cancer Inhibition by Inositol Hexaphosphate (IP6) and Inositol: From Laboratory to Clinic”. J. Nutr. 133: 3778S-3784S. http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/reprint/133/11/3778S.  ^ Yoon, Jane H.; Thompson, Lilian U.; Jenkins, David JA (December 1983). “The effect of phytic acid on in vitro rate of starch digestibility and blood glucose response”. Am J Clin Nutr. 38: 835842. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/reprint/38/6/835.  ^ Sudheer, Kumar M; Sridhar, Reddy B; Kiran, Babu S; Bhilegaonkar, PM; Shirwaikar, A; Unnikrishnan, MK (February 2004). “Antiinflammatory and antiulcer activities of phytic acid in rats”. Indian J Exp Biol. 42 (2): 17985. PMID 15282951.  ^ Committee on Food Protection, Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council (1973). “Phytates”. Toxicants Occurring Naturally in Foods. National Academy of Sciences. pp. 363371. ISBN 9780309021173. http://books.google.com/books?id=lIsrAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA363.  ^ Adlercreutz H, Mazur W, Bartels P, et al. (2000). “Phytoestrogens and prostate disease”. J. Nutr. 130 (3): 658S9S. PMID 10702603.  ^ de Kleijn MJ, van der Schouw YT, Wilson PW, Grobbee DE, Jacques PF (2002). “Dietary intake of phytoestrogens is associated with a favorable metabolic cardiovascular risk profile in postmenopausal U.S.women: the Framingham study”. J. Nutr. 132 (2): 27682. PMID 11823590.  ^ Valsta LM, Kilkkinen A, Mazur W, et al. (2003). “Phyto-oestrogen database of foods and average intake in Finland”. Br. J. Nutr. 89 Suppl 1: S318. doi:10.1079/BJN2002794. PMID 12725654.  ^ Thompson LU, Boucher BA, Liu Z, Cotterchio M, Kreiger N (2006). “Phytoestrogen content of foods consumed in Canada, including isoflavones, lignans, and coumestan”. Nutr Cancer 54 (2): 184201. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc5402_5. PMID 16898863.  ^ de Lemos ML (2001). “Effects of soy phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein on breast cancer growth”. Ann Pharmacother 35 (9): 111821. doi:10.1345/aph.10257. PMID 11573864.  ^ Messina M, McCaskill-Stevens W, Lampe JW (2006). “Addressing the soy and breast cancer relationship: review, commentary, and workshop proceedings”. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 98 (18): 127584. doi:10.1093/jnci/djj356. PMID 16985246.  ^ Emily Sonestedt, Ulrika Ericson, Bo Gullberg, Kerstin Skog, Hkan Olsson, Elisabet Wirflt (2008). “Do both heterocyclic amines and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids contribute to the incidence of breast cancer in postmenopausal women of the Malm diet and cancer cohort?”. The International Journal of Cancer (UICC International Union Against Cancer) 123 (7): 16371643. doi:10.1002/ijc.23394. PMID 10970215. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/120780752/abstract. Retrieved 2008-11-30.  ^ Valeria Pala, Vittorio Krogh, Paola Muti, Vronique Chajs, Elio Riboli, Andrea Micheli, Mitra Saadatian, Sabina Sieri, Franco Berrino (18 July 2001). “Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acids and Subsequent Breast Cancer: a Prospective Italian Study”. JNCL 93 (14): 1088. PMID 11459870. http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/93/14/1088. Retrieved 2008-11-30.  ^ Dillingham BL, McVeigh BL, Lampe JW, Duncan AM (2005). “Soy protein isolates of varying isoflavone content exert minor effects on serum reproductive hormones in healthy young men”. J. Nutr. 135 (3): 58491. PMID 15735098.  ^ Heald CL, Ritchie MR, Bolton-Smith C, Morton MS, Alexander FE (2007). “Phyto-oestrogens and risk of prostate cancer in Scottish men”. Br. J. Nutr. 98 (2): 38896. doi:10.1017/S0007114507700703. PMID 17403269.  ^ Maskarinec G, Morimoto Y, Hebshi S, Sharma S, Franke AA, Stanczyk FZ (December 2006). “Serum prostate-specific antigen but not testosterone levels decrease in a randomized soy intervention among men”. Eur J Clin Nutr 60 (12): 14239. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602473. PMID 16775579.  ^ Chavarro JE, Toth TL, Sadio SM, Hauser R (November 2008). “Soy food and isoflavone intake in relation to semen quality parameters among men from an infertility clinic”. Hum Reprod. 23 (11): 258490. doi:10.1093/humrep/den243. PMID 18650557. http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/short/den243v1.  ^ Cantani, A; Lucenti P (August 1997). “Natural history of soy allergy and/or intolerance in children, and clinical use of soy-protein formulas”. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 8 (2): 5974. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3038.1997.tb00146.x.  ^ Cordle, C T (May 2004). “Soy protein allergy: incidence and relative severity.”. Journal of Nutrition 134 (5): 1213S1219S.  ^ Sampson, H A (May 1999). “Food allergy. Part 1: Immunopathogenesis and clinical disorders”. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 103 (5): 717728. doi:10.1016/S0091-6749(99)70411-2.  ^ Eberling JL, Wu C, Haan MN, Mungas D, Buonocore M, Jagust WJ (2003). “Preliminary evidence that estrogen protects against age-related hippocampal atrophy”. Neurobiol. Aging 24 (5): 72532. doi:10.1016/S0197-4580(02)00056-8. PMID 12885580.  ^ File SE, Hartley DE, Alom N, Rattray M (2003). “Soya phytoestrogens change cortical and hippocampal expression of BDNF mRNA in male rats”. Neurosci. Lett. 338 (2): 1358. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(02)01391-5. PMID 12566171.  ^ White LR, Petrovitch H, Ross GW, et al. (2000). “Brain aging and midlife tofu consumption”. J Am Coll Nutr 19 (2): 24255. PMID 10763906. http://www.jacn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10763906.  ^ Dethloff L, Barr B, Bestervelt L, et al. (2000). “Gabapentin-induced mitogenic activity in rat pancreatic acinar cells”. Toxicol. Sci. 55 (1): 529. doi:10.1093/toxsci/55.1.52. PMID 10788559.  ^ Roebuck BD, Kaplita PV, Edwards BR, Praissman M (1987). “Effects of dietary fats and soybean protein on azaserine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis and plasma cholecystokinin in the rat”. Cancer Res. 47 (5): 13338. PMID 3815341.  ^ Roebuck BD (1986). “Enhancement of pancreatic carcinogenesis by raw soy protein isolate: quantitative rat model and nutritional considerations”. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 199: 91107. PMID 3799291.  ^ The Whole Soy Story? Half truths and untruths do not a whole story make By Syd Baumel, eatkind.net. ^ [www.news.com.au/dailytelegraph/story/0,22049,21054484-5001021,00.html Soy cancer warning] By Clair Weaver January 14, 2007 The Daily Telegraph. ^ List of Commodity Delivery Dates on Wikinvest. ^ http://www.safex.co.za/ ^ http://www.dce.com.cn ^ http://www.kanex.or.jp/english/index-eng.htm ^ http://www.tge.or.jp/english/index.shtml External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Soybean Cornell University Food and Brand Lab – Insights on encouraging soy consumption Health Canada: Soy – Information from the Canadian government Indian Soybean recipe New Crop Resource Online Program – Large collection of Soybean information Soy Allergy Information Page – Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America Soyfoods Association of North America – Trade association The Vegetarian & Vegan Foundation – Soy advocacy fact sheet United Soybean Board – Trade association The History of Soy – Soy’s journey v  d  e Soy General Soybean  Soy protein  Soybean meal  Soy controversy  Soy allergy  List of soybean diseases Meat analogues Tofu  Tempeh  Tofurkey Dairy analogues Soy milk  Soy cheese  Soy yogurt  Soy ice cream Sauces and condiments Fermented bean paste  Soy sauce v  d  e Vegetarianism Diets Sattvic diet  Veganism  Raw veganism  Fruitarianism Semi-vegetarianism Flexitarianism  Pescetarianism  Pollotarianism Animal byproducts Lacto-ovo-vegetarianism  Ovo-vegetarianism  Lacto-vegetarianism Basic topics History of vegetarianism  Vegetarianism by country  List of vegetarians  Environmental vegetarianism  Economic vegetarianism  Ethics of eating meat Vegetarianism and religion Buddhism  Catharism  Christianity  Hinduism  Jainism  Jewish vegetarianism  Sikhism  Tolstoyanism Food and drink Cheese analogue  Meat analogue  Plant milk  Vegan cuisine  Vegan organic gardening  Vegan wine  Vegetarian nutrition  Vegetarian cuisine  Veggie burger Organizations and events American Vegetarian Party  Christian Vegetarian Association  European Vegetarian Union  Food for Life  International Vegetarian Union  Massachusetts Animal Rights Coalition  Boston Vegetarian Society  PETA  Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine  Toronto Vegetarian Association  Vegan Society  Vegetarian Network Victoria  Vegetarian Society  Veggies  World Vegan Day  World Vegetarian Day v  d  e Edible fats and oils Fats Bacon fat  Blubber  Butter  Clarified butter  Cocoa butter  Dripping  Duck fat  Ghee  Lard  Margarine  Niter kibbeh  Salo  Schmaltz  Shea butter  Smen  Suet  Tallow  Vegetable shortening Oils Almond oil  Argan oil  Avocado oil  Canola oil  Cashew oil  Castor oil  Coconut oil  Colza oil  Corn oil  Cottonseed oil  Fish oil  Grape seed oil  Hazelnut oil  Hemp oil  Linseed oil (flaxseed oil)  Macadamia oil  Marula oil  Mongongo nut oil  Mustard oil  Olive oil  Palm oil (palm kernel oil)  Peanut oil  Pecan oil  Perilla oil  Pine nut oil  Pistachio oil  Poppyseed oil  Pumpkin seed oil  Rapeseed oil  Rice bran oil  Safflower oil  Sesame oil  Soybean oil  Sunflower oil  Tea seed oil  Walnut oil  Watermelon seed oil  Whale oil See also: List of vegetable oils  Cooking oil  Essential oil Categories: Vegetarianism

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Explore nature or style with Woodland adventure shoes

Well, to sport a pair of Woodland shoes and begin your exploration drive, you first need to buy them. Woodland shoes are sold through a network called the Woodland World Wide. An abundance of adventure shoes, boots, slip-ons and sandals are what makes the network of stores and outlets across India, and abroad, popular. The network extends to the online world, where you can buy branded shoes from several retailers. Going online for shoes can be the ultimate shopping experience for you. Unlimited brands, online payments, home delivery and return offers, all add to the fun of exploring shoes on the web. 

Before you go ahead and purchase a pair of adventure shoes, you actually need to know what makes them perfect for adventure activities. One of the most important aspects is the shoe outsoles.  The outsole of your adventure shoes should provide you with comfortable grip for every stride. They should offer traction on any terrain. That’s why, outsoles are chosen according to the shoe design, and are created in such a way that you are comfortable on every type of rough surface. Woodland shoes and boots use Custom TPR, PU or EVA outsoles to ensure that your exploration drive in unhindered by unsteady steps.

Nubuck uppers that offer durability for harsh environments along with leather toe-caps and heel guards for protection are some other features of Woodland shoes that make them ideal for rocky, muddy or rough trails.  Cushioned inside soles also ensure shock absorption and all-day comfort. Woodland sandals, on the other hand, feature unordinary sole heights for better durability and Velcro fasteners for snug fits. Hook and loop closures at the instep and grooved rubber outsoles of sandals ensure that you explore the environment with steady strides.

For some of you, exploring your style is more important than nature. New age gadgets and National Geographic channel are enough for exploring rugged environments. Woodland sandals and shoes use several in-vogue and creative design elements to make their shoes fashionable and trendy. Even if outdoor adventure is high on your list, why keep style behind? Explore nature and your style quotient with a stylish pair of Woodland.

How to Save for Retirement While Paying Student Loans

The whole reason you go to college in the first place is to give yourself a better future. You have big dreams to work hard when you’re young and retire early and enjoy the rest of your life without stressing things like financial stability.

So you take a student loan, so sure you’ll get a perfect job after graduation and can pay it off again without losing.

Unfortunately, life is not always so tidy and now you find that you are one of 44.2 million people whose lives are held back by federal or private student loan loans.

And retirement is getting closer from day to day.

You have three obvious choices when considering how to deal with student loans vs. retirement – and for those who know doing your homework does not stop when you throw your graduation cap in the air, there is a fourth option to consider.

1. Loan now, retire later
For many, this is the best option. Sure, this will tie up the funds for now and now – something you really need to consider if the future holds a mortgage or pram. But if you can scrape it now, you might just come out on top in the future.

By focusing on repaying student loans as soon as possible, you’ll save a lot of money you pay, which often means meaningful change.

The weakness of this approach is obvious.

More often than not, a job with a perfect high salary does not fall out of the sky once you graduate. If you find yourself in a job to do right now while you’re out of college, chances are you do not have much money to put into your student loans.

Prioritizing paying off student loans will also tie up a lot of your money for the near future, let alone a longer future. Retirement is the last thing you have in mind and if you are not careful, it will sit behind the stove for too long.

2. Pension now with minimum loan repayment
Some people choose the opposite approach.

By prioritizing savings now, you have the comfort to know that you always have a safety net there when you need them.

However, you can not just ignore student loan payments. You still have the minimum payment you need to make each month.

Moreover, the longer you wait to deal with your student loans, the more you end up having to pay interest, making this option much more expensive in the long run.

3. A little of both
This is a middle ground and many people consider this a happy medium between two extremes.

You pay a little more than the minimum on your student loan each month and then put a little into savings for retirement.

In the end, you will pay a portion for the interest, but you will also have a healthy pension.

4. Forgiveness of the loan
Forgiveness of student loans is an option that no one realizes.

While this is not a free card that is not tied to a rope, as this may be a very viable option for you to see.

Some programs offer to forgive the entire loan amount, together with unpaid interest. Others work by forgiving the remaining balance of the loan at the end of the repayment period.

You know it’s important to pay off your debts and save for the future. Now you know your choice.

Transmission Fluid Modification

Ask the bulk motorists as well as drivers, what magnificence of automatic program fluid their automobile transmission take & you can be assembly with a vacant stare. You symbolize that there is extra than one more or less transmission solution? In no way minds that they wish to adjust their automotive, motor automobiles or vehicles’ automatic diffusion liquid on an each and every once a year source.

Transmission Fluid ChangeSimply rest there is further than one kind of vehicle relocate fluid. Next in column is that as an automobile owner you enclose to switch or peak up the fluid through the proper & just right type. Carrier of an automobile type ( versus blue-collar or usual ) transmission which breaks down or want restore attributable not to sufficient upkeep in conjunction with the mistaken type and stipulations of tranny fluids as you expectantly have not practiced but – is exceptionally specialised, time overwhelming and expensive.

What are a collection of kind& version of car repeated transmission fluid? to begin with there may be a form “A”. “Kind A’ solution were extensively worn within the earlier period for the preliminary and lovely easy, and none difficult early automated transmission fashions and setup. Then again, sort “A’ answer used to be changed in Dexron. Dexron in twist is substitute by “Dexron II”. The majority department now Sort “F” & “Dexron II” have been the 2 the majority extraordinary types of regimen transmission fluid that mainly motorists & vehicle homeowners wish to recognize and will come throughout all by way of their dynamic careers. The So much Ford transmissions should have the sort F while additional transmissions worn Dexron II. The fluid type be imagined to clearly categorised at the bud vase with a transparent obvious stamp or symbol on the outdoor of the plastic container.

It’s primarily vital to have the ability to discriminate that Type F & Dexron II fluids weren’t the identical by any methodology, shape or individuality they employ in functioning transmission. In principle of Dexron Ii is a great deal further “slickky” than type “F”.

In consequence by means of Dexron II resolution a motorist will come throughout that considering the fact that their car shift that they would come with a softer transfer pattern. then again all over mechanical intend and scheming, the sources chosen for the rubbing components, corresponding to staff facings & grasp-plate facings, were selected particularly in grouping for the kind of option to be used. supposed for this very result in filling your device crankshaft with the wrong or mistaken kind of liquid may impact your transmission more than stage to fail.

Dexron II & kind F fluid comprises related flow area of expertise & warmth stability. However, every has a more than a few friction set of individuality. The automatic transmission liquid artificially made by a Ford Motor Corporate desire a quick lockup’s with a small slippage because the keep an eye on engage. Consequently the Kind F liquid is named for purposely in the ones Ford identified or reproduced automatic transmission. It has a higher coefficient of rubbing than Dexron II.

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5 Multilingual SEO Tips for Marketing Translations

 

If your website appeals to an international audience, you may have to translate your content into multiple languages.

A multilingual SEO strategy will make sure that your content is getting there by as many people as possible, no matter what language it’s in.

Below, we’re outlining five multilingual SEO tips for marketing translations, so your content gets seen in every language.

1. Choose Your Languages ​​Carefully
Just because your content will appeal to an international audience does not mean it will work for every international audience.

Before you begin translating your content into multiple languages, do some research. You want to determine where your audience is.

A tool like Keywords Explorer will help you find the countries that are searching for keywords related to your product or service.

This will help you determine where you should be marketing your product into.

2. Use the Right CMS for Your Multilingual SEO
Not all Content Management Systems are created equal. This is especially true when it comes to a website with content in multiple languages.

You want to find an open source CMS with a shared database.

A shared database will let you update all versions of your site at once.

For example, if you update something on the English version of your site, the same update will be made to the French language version.

Not having to make each individual change will save you time. It will also ensure consistency, which is important for successful multilingual SEO.

3. Have the Right Translation
If you want to appeal to an international audience, you have to speak their language – literally.

Having a sloppy translation or a translation that does not make sense can make your site seem unprofessional. That will ultimately hurt your brand.

Using a professional translation service is the best way to ensure the quality of your content across multiple languages.

Click for more information about multilingual services and how to build trust with your users utilizing different language options.

4. Create Separate Pages for Each Language
Trying to put every language for your content on one page is terrible for both your SEO strategy and your overall user experience.

Search engines can only index one page at a time, and you want them to do so.

Building a separate page for each language also makes it easier for the user to navigate to the right page for them.

They’ll feel that their experience is a priority, which will make them more like to use your product or service.

5. Write the Right Content
If you are targeting an international audience, the writing on your site is important.

Do not translate your content just to translate it. You want it to have value for an international audience.

Support your multilingual SEO strategy with content that an international audience will have a genuine use for, and your audience will grow across the globe.

Get Started Now
Creating a site that will have value for an international audience is a big project. From the type of content to the SEO that will promote it, there is a lot to think about.

If you do it successfully though, you will open yourself up to new customers and clients across the globe.

Locating an RV Seller If You Are Far From Home

You obtained a motor home in order to tour the United States at your personal pace. Sadly, at the time you opted to make this acquisition, you didn’t stop and think about what you should perform should you have issues in your trips. Thankfully, the majority of issues can be easily fixed in a nearby RV dealer, so it’s only a matter of choosing the best one for your requirements. When you are traveling in St. Louis, you’ll be able to rely on St. Louis RV and Bus to assist you with whatever went totally wrong with your transport. The technicians at their repair facility are experienced and trained, hence they swiftly get your RV back on the highway, regardless of how big or small the issue is. All techs are certified, so that you recognize the maintenance was done the right way, plus they can repair any vehicle make or model that you make use of. If you need to get an upgraded component for your RV, something you fully grasp you will need while on the road, you’ll discover they might be of help here as well. They sell a variety of components designed to help make your recreational vehicle suitable in every way. Give them a call right now or drop by to find out what they have to offer. Needless to say, you’ve got an alternative choice as well, one which quite a few now prefer to take advantage of, and that’s checking the dealership on the net. While you’re requiring a motor home repair, you need to try this web-site to start with, particularly when you’re far from your home. When you visit this site right here, you’ll get the important information so you can feel comfortable turning the home from home over to them. Talk to a nearby recreational vehicle owner who he picks for his motor home repairs and this is the location he will let you know about. Be sure to ask for his explanation as well, since this will explain quite a bit regarding the services you will receive any time you bring your recreational vehicle into the center. While on the website, be sure to take a look at additional resource here also. This website was designed to benefit practically all who have a recreational vehicle, if they require parts, repairs, or anything at all related to their own personal RV.

Praful Patel Demands Stimulation For The Automobile Industry

The Automobile Industry has witnessed a certain slowdown in its sales, in the last one year. Probably, it is for this reason that Patel demanded a case of stimulus for this industry. Indeed, it is very important to accelerate the proceedings of the Automobile Industry, since the government is largely dependent on the revenue generated by this segment. The article below throws more light on the same.

Keeping in mind the gradual slack in the Automobile Industry, the Heavy Industries Minister Praful Patel said that he would be taking a delegation of the Industry to the finance Minister P. Chidambaram and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, to discuss a probable stimulus for it. A case of stimulus has been considered for the Automobile Industry, since the sales have gone down, in the last few months. Patel reported, “I am in constant touch with the government. Also in the days, I am going to arrange a meeting of the entire auto sector – Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) and other stakeholders – with the Prime Minister and the Finance Minister so that the industry is able to express its concerns and I am sure we will find a way forward.” It is to be kept in mind that the slowdown in the industry, has affected several other factors. For instance, there has also been a gradual fall in the number of jobs that the Industry has been creating for individuals.

It was at the SIAM’s annual convention that Praful Patel expressed his views, regarding the Industry. Patel further said that the increased interest rates were adding to the woes of the Automobile industry. The high interest rates have indeed affected the purchasing potential of the middle class families since the EMIs that they pay, is directly linked to these rates. It has indeed been a roller coaster ride for the Automobile Industry. While Mahindra, Toyota and TATA motors have seen a fall in their sales, companies like Hyundai, Honda and Maruti Suzuki have reported cases of increased sales in the last quarter of 2013.

According to news reports, the four wheelers have suffered a setback compared to the two wheelers. Scooter India and Honda Motorcycle have both seen an increase in their sales, in the last quarter of the year. According to the data reports of SIAM, car sales in the country, however, fell for record nine months in a row in July, declining 7.4 percent, as the economic slowdown and low consumer sentiment hit demand. Vehicle sales across all categories dropped 2.08 percent to 14,15,102 units in July 2013 from 14,45,112 units a year earlier. Probably, even SIAM just like the NCP Leader Praful Patel wants a stimulus package for the Automobile sector, if the problems can be resolved through it.

It was in 2008-09, when that the excise duty on scooters, bikes and small cars was brought down to 8%. Something similar, during this financial year, shall do a world of good to the industry. The whole scheme would not only up the ante for the Automobile segment, but it would also curb the economic slowdown that India has been experiencing, now and often.

Praful Patel’s contributions towards the growth of this Industry from here on shall be pivotal. It is to be noted that the Automobile segment is in fact the largest employer of the nation, providing individuals with plenty of job opportunities. Furthermore, it also contributes around 25 percent of the manufacturing GDP. In such situation, Patel’s idea of providing stimulus to the Automobile Industry stands justified without a second though.

The Heavy Industries Minister Praful Patel also promoted Diesel as a future fuel on the annual convention of SIAM. For more information on this minister, follow Praful Patel’s YouTube and Facebook account.

Procedure For Buying Men’s Adidas Superstar Shoes Online

Don’t assume that buying men’s Adidas Superstar shoes over the internet is an easy undertaking. It might sound to be so but you will realize how challenging it is once you are into actual online shopping. There are several steps involved and which require total keenness for a positive result. Above all, there are many online fraudsters selling fake Adidas shoes that you have to be cautious about. They can swindle you money and inflict frustrations once you go shopping without prior planning.

It is for that reason this article will discuss the main procedures used in making proper purchase of Superstar shoes for men from Adidas. First and foremost, you have to determine what type of shoes you want to buy and men’s Adidas Superstar is the answer. With that determination sure, the next step will be looking for a reputable and trustworthy website where they sell original Adidas shoes. Authorized dealers of Adidas are the best places to visit because you will be assured of buying original shoes. Even when you are dealing with a different store, it is good that you know the right ways of differentiating between original and counterfeit Adidas shoes.

Using search engines like Google will give you multiple options of the best online sites to buy these shoes. There are important details about the men’s Adidas Superstar shoes you want to buy which you must pay total attention to. Look at the size of the shoes to make sure they will fit in well, consider the material for durability purposes as well as cost such that it does not go beyond your budget. The site you decide to purchase Adidas shoes from must be in a position of satisfying all that as per your expectations. You don’t have to choose a website just because it is selling shoes but for the reason that it has what you are after.

The descriptive part of the shoes is what should matter a lot because you want one that has the favorite color, design or material. The last step and which is very important when buying men’s Adidas Superstar shoes online is the policy of the website. This outlines how the shipping will be done if necessary and steps for dealing with after-sale challenges. The shoes might disappear while on transit and the policy is what will offer guidelines on the right remedy. Will you have to seek a replacement? Will the dealer compensate you? Do you bear the entire burden? This is why you must read through the policy of the site you decide to buy your Superstars from.

After you have understood and agreed to the policy, the last thing will be formalizing your purchase.

Resource Box Purchase of men’s Adidas Superstar shoes http://www.shell-toes.com/adidas-superstar-2-blackout-g14748.html over the internet has to be procedural and this helps to make sure nothing is overlooked. Follow each and every step cardinally for a guarantee that your buying decision will be an informed one. Also, look out for Adidas special editions that are available online instantly.

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Assembling a Real Estate Group

With lots of calgary homes for sale, you could be thinking about making an acquisition. If it is the scenario, a calgary realtor will probably be of prime facilitation at every stage of this activity, from helping you to find the right real estate calgary to choosing a calgary mortgage broker. Given that the procedure for purchasing property is very intricate, you need a team of professionals working for you. There are several widespread errors potential buyers make and those specialists make it easier to avoid also making these mistakes. Below are a few errors you’ll want to stay clear of in the process and just how a specialist may help you stay away from them.

As soon as you locate a house you like, you might feel as though you must make a proposal without delay, and this is especially true when the real estate market is incredibly restricted. There are occasions when it would be better to simply let this home go and then continue browsing, although you may believe it is your dream home. The realtor is familiar with your local market and can also help you make your decision as to whether a proposal ought to be made or when you really should wait for some length of time.

Your team of professionals will help you decide how much you can afford when it comes to a house. While you might think you discovered your dream home, it’s not going to continue to be the home you have dreamed of if you’re struggling to pay the mortgage monthly and see you do without in other areas to satisfy the bills. The mortgage broker and realtor can help you figure out which cost range actually works with regards to your spending budget whilst assisting you to find the bank loan that provides the most beneficial terms and conditions.

A few home owners hold off until they’ve saved up 20 percent of the price prior to buying a home, yet this may not be the ideal move in the market today. Many people are now finding the house increases in value more rapidly than you would likely expect to see. Should you buy now with simply 10 % down, you will probably find that your house worth rises more rapidly than interest within a financial institution would so you are making a smart property investment in your own foreseeable future. Do not delay buying because of this and others. With the assistance of the right real estate team, this may not matter.

Various Areas Of Automobile Locksmith Services

This unique sort of service includes a broad variety of actions. This could evidently entail replacement of crucial when they’re misplaced or damaged, duplication of the auto keys, removing the keys just in case they may be broken and stuffed within the ignition gap, replacement of the transponder keys and repairing of ignition and auto locks.

These specialists are incredibly qualified to supply a wide range of roadside support in the event of any sort of problem in barely any moment and that makes these folks virtually indispensable in the sphere of car. They are generally extremely well-experienced and are supplied with the newest tools machinery in order that they could take care of any situation and provide alternatives for the customers.

The professional vehicle key and secure fixing technicians generally arrive at the site in trucks that are stocked with a broad range of products and tools for fixing any sort of problem. Again, when it comes to high end crisis service, they are lightning quick and the service they provide is faster and fast than a number of the dealer shops. The dealers who are at times, more dreamed have all the required requirements along with tips to cut

Professional vehicle lock and key fixing companies generally have a broad range of deciphering machinery and this allow them all to minimize as well as application numerous kinds of car keys in quickly and they generally maintain a call center where their clients can call in the event of any crisis. You would find a lot of these people in all the major cities of the planet. Nevertheless, you must pick for the person who offers the top service at an affordable speed.

One of the very most common issues these specialists need to face is extracting keys which have broken off in the key with one end stuck inside the keyhole or countering issues of lost keys. All these are incredibly frustrating situations for that auto owners and these folks are educated sufficiently not only to manage the situations except to provide enough courage and moral support for the owners, particularly when they’re in a rush or in case of other crisis situations.

At occasions, these people take good care of numerous type of faulty automobile tresses or issues of failed mechanism of tresses. These individuals are adequately educated to assess the gravity of any kind of circumstance and may take appropriate steps so.

These specialists are trained sufficiently to remove the requirements of the stolen secrets from the ECU of the car and cut a brand new key and recode locks and encode new combinations.

The author is just one of dominant Locksmiths Dublin is renowned for. If you’re interested to know more about the Automobile Vehicle Locksmith Dublin is famed for, you can go through e-books that you would find in the web

When looking for a locksmith in Miami, FL, you want to find somebody who is professional and affordable. Our Reliable car Locksmith Miami understands that we need to be mobile so that we will respond quickly to any situation. If you are looking for an Miami locksmith 24 hour, call us now at 305-860-1440 and the closest technician we will dispatched to your locations immediately.

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